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For a galaxy to have intelligent life, it has to have a lot of heavy elements

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  • For a galaxy to have intelligent life, it has to have a lot of heavy elements

    The more men learn about God's creation, the more they see that life is very rare.

    For any galaxy to have intelligent life it has to have a lot of massive stars. Small stars can not form any element heavier than iron. All of the elements heavier than iron are formed in supernovas; and only massive stars can end in a supernova.

    Our Sun has more heavy elements than any other star that men can find. Which means God formed it from the clouds of gas from other supernovas to have so many heavy elements. Evidence shows that our Sun is a third generation star.

    Notice also that the earth is the third planet from the Sun. Our earth is the only planet with one and only one moon. And our moon is very large compared to the earth. Our moon is the largest moon compared to it's planet in the solar system.

    Some might argue that Charon is half the diameter of Pluto. But Pluto and Charon are a DOUBLE planet system and so Charon is not a moon of Pluto but a twin planet to Pluto. ( it is a twin system because they both orbit around a common point that is in between both planets) Pluto and Charon have four moons that orbit around both planets.

    Fine-Tuning the Ratio of Small to Large Stars

    July 30, 2015
    By Dr. Hugh Ross

    For decades, astronomers have assumed that the ratio of small-mass stars to high-mass stars observed in our Milky Way Galaxy (MWG) is a universal constant for all galaxies. A growing body of data, however, now challenges that assumption.
    Astronomers refer to this ratio as the stellar initial mass function (IMF). The IMF is important for establishing whether a galaxy could possibly host life since it determines the galaxy’s chemical enrichment history. High-mass stars produce more elements that are heavier than helium and only high-mass stars produce elements heavier than iron. Life, especially advanced life, requires that the abundance of elements in the periodic table be available at specified levels.

    Furthermore, for planetary systems, the abundance of elements heavier than helium is strongly correlated with the size and number of asteroid and comet belts. As I explained in a previous Today’s New Reason to Believe article, for advanced life to be possible on a planet, the number, sizes, and locations of asteroid and comet belts in its planetary system must be fine-tuned. Too many high-mass stars would mean that the planet on which advanced life could conceivably exist would be buffeted by destructive gravitational perturbations exerted by the high-mass stars.

    The latest and most potent challenge to the IMF being a universal constant for all galaxies comes from an analysis by the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Array (CALIFA) survey team.1 The CALIFA survey is an integral field spectral survey of 600 nearby galaxies. The study is designed to investigate how galaxies form and evolve over the history of the universe.

    The CALIFA team performed detailed observations of 24 early-type galaxies characterized by old stellar populations where only stars less massive than the Sun are still burning. Analysis of these observations showed that the IMF not only varies from galaxy to galaxy but also varies within each galaxy. The IMF depends strongly on distance from the center of each galaxy and on the age of the galaxy. These characteristics led the CALIFA team to conclude that the local abundance of elements heavier than helium is a major factor in determining the IMF.

    The variations in the IMF noted by the CALIFA team yield more evidence for fine-tuning design in the position of a planet capable of sustaining advanced life. Such a planet must reside in an environment with the just-right IMF, which implies that it must reside in the just-right position within a galaxy that possesses the just-right mean IMF.

    Subjects: Galaxy Design
    Dr. Hugh Ross

    Reasons to Believe emerged from my passion to research, develop, and proclaim the most powerful new reasons to believe in Christ as Creator, Lord, and Savior and to use those new reasons to reach people for Christ. Read more about Dr. Hugh Ross.


    1. Ignacio Mart�*n-Navarro et al., “IMF–Metallicity: A Tight Local Relation Revealed by the CALIFA Survey,” Astrophysical Journal Letters 806 (June 2015): id. L31, doi:10.1088/2041-8205/806/2/L31.