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  • Periodic table that shows where every element came from

    Building on that spirit, Jennifer A. Johnson, an astronomer at the Ohio State University, has hacked the periodic table of elements to show exactly what kind of "star stuff" Sagan is talking about, and how much.

    Her graphic below, which we first saw in a tweet by science writer Corey Powell, shows the violent cosmic origins of every element in the solar system including all of the atoms in our bodies:
    periodic table chemical elements space origins supernovas jennifer a johnson nasa esa
    (A periodic table of chemical elements showing where every atom in the solar system comes from.Jennifer A. Johnson/The Ohio State University; NASA; ESA)


    Johnson said the idea for plotting out the origins of periodic elements started at a meeting 8 years ago with fellow astronomer Inese Ivans, but that early attempts (like this one) were unsatisfying.

    "Once you have spent ~20 years getting [...] this info into your brain, the main difficulty is not wanting to make the plot too complicated to include every little detail," Johnson told Business Insider in an email. "In several cases I needed to say 'OK, that's close enough to get the point across'."

    She ultimately color-coded six types of cosmic events that can forge new atoms: the Big Bang, cosmic rays, merging neutron stars, and three different classes of exploding stars. Each portion of color shows the relative amount of element the event made.

    (The Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant.NASA/JPL-Caltech)


    It shows that many critical elements in our bodies oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) came out of giant exploding stars called supernova, while others like carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) came from dying, sun-like stars. Hydrogen (H), meanwhile, which is a key component of water, came out of the Big Bang.

    Johnson said all the scientific evidence behind the chart "goes back decades" and is still evolving.

    "You have stars with the mass of the Sun dying, you have massive stars and white dwarfs blowing up, you have neutron stars [...] then swirling into each other and merging," she said. "It's hard work!"

    The elements technetium (Tc) and promethium (Pm) are gray, Johnson says, "because the only time we see them is when we make them in colliders or nuclear bombs."

    Johnson said one thing her chart doesn't show is how long it took to get each element. To get all the core elements of life in the right abundances, for example, plus rock-building elements magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), and iron (Fe) it took billions upon billions of years.

    "So right after the Big Bang no planets, no life until stars had time to enrich the Universe," she said. "'So 'long ago, in a galaxy far, far, away' can't have been too long ago!"

    If the contrast isn't shining through very well, Johnson also made a colorblind-friendly version of the chart.

    https://www.yahoo.com/finance/news/p...185800922.html

  • #2
    Originally posted by Lou Newton View Post
    Building on that spirit, Jennifer A. Johnson, an astronomer at the Ohio State University, has hacked the periodic table of elements to show exactly what kind of "star stuff" Sagan is talking about, and how much.

    Her graphic below, which we first saw in a tweet by science writer Corey Powell, shows the violent cosmic origins of every element in the solar system including all of the atoms in our bodies:
    periodic table chemical elements space origins supernovas jennifer a johnson nasa esa
    (A periodic table of chemical elements showing where every atom in the solar system comes from.Jennifer A. Johnson/The Ohio State University; NASA; ESA)


    Johnson said the idea for plotting out the origins of periodic elements started at a meeting 8 years ago with fellow astronomer Inese Ivans, but that early attempts (like this one) were unsatisfying.

    "Once you have spent ~20 years getting [...] this info into your brain, the main difficulty is not wanting to make the plot too complicated to include every little detail," Johnson told Business Insider in an email. "In several cases I needed to say 'OK, that's close enough to get the point across'."

    She ultimately color-coded six types of cosmic events that can forge new atoms: the Big Bang, cosmic rays, merging neutron stars, and three different classes of exploding stars. Each portion of color shows the relative amount of element the event made.

    (The Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant.NASA/JPL-Caltech)


    It shows that many critical elements in our bodies oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) came out of giant exploding stars called supernova, while others like carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) came from dying, sun-like stars. Hydrogen (H), meanwhile, which is a key component of water, came out of the Big Bang.

    Johnson said all the scientific evidence behind the chart "goes back decades" and is still evolving.

    "You have stars with the mass of the Sun dying, you have massive stars and white dwarfs blowing up, you have neutron stars [...] then swirling into each other and merging," she said. "It's hard work!"

    The elements technetium (Tc) and promethium (Pm) are gray, Johnson says, "because the only time we see them is when we make them in colliders or nuclear bombs."

    Johnson said one thing her chart doesn't show is how long it took to get each element. To get all the core elements of life in the right abundances, for example, plus rock-building elements magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), and iron (Fe) it took billions upon billions of years.

    "So right after the Big Bang no planets, no life until stars had time to enrich the Universe," she said. "'So 'long ago, in a galaxy far, far, away' can't have been too long ago!"

    If the contrast isn't shining through very well, Johnson also made a colorblind-friendly version of the chart.

    https://www.yahoo.com/finance/news/p...185800922.html
    That's really awsome! Is silver si? It's so fascinating to see where stuff comes from, and that she says it took such a long time for life to come about. In fact, it looks like a relatively recent events in the universe. One of the best things I've seen here yet! Do other articles mention the difficulty she had in piecing it together? What is cosmic ray fission?

    Comment


    • #3
      Glad you liked it Tom. Si is the symbol for Silicon. Silver is Ag.

      A chiropractor we both know had plates on his silver Porsche that read - HihoAg

      Cosmic ray fusion:

      I was in bed when I realized that I had answered wrong. Gamma rays are the form of light with the most energy, not cosmic rays.

      Gamma rays are photons that have the shortest wave length of any radiation ( light) and have the highest energy. They are produced by supernovas, neutron stars and black holes.

      Cosmic rays are quite different. They are also produced by supernovas and black holes, BUT they are NOT photons, but they are made up of protons or even the nuclei of atoms. ( which is made up of several protons)

      Photons may have no mass, or at least very little mass. But of course protons are a very massive particle.

      When these cosmic rays collide with other atoms ( at near the speed of light) they can cause the two to combine into one atom of higher mass with more protons. Of course then they form another element. That is a form of fusion.

      Please feel free to ask questions everyone.
      Last edited by Lou Newton; January 21, 2017, 11:59 PM.

      Comment


      • #4
        Originally posted by Lou Newton View Post
        Glad you liked it Tom. Si is the symbol for Silicon. Silver is Ag.

        A chiropractor we both know had plates on his silver Porsche that read - HihoAg

        Cosmic ray fusion:

        I was in bed when I realized that I had answered wrong. Gamma rays are the form of light with the most energy, not cosmic rays.

        Gamma rays are photons that have the shortest wave length of any radiation ( light) and have the highest energy. They are produced by supernovas, neutron stars and black holes.

        Cosmic rays are quite different. They are also produced by supernovas and black holes, BUT they are NOT photons, but they are made up of protons or even the nuclei of atoms. ( which is made up of several protons)

        Photons may have no mass, or at least very little mass. But of course protons are a very massive particle.

        When these cosmic rays collide with other atoms ( at near the speed of light) they can cause the two to combine into one atom of higher mass with more protons. Of course then they form another element. That is a form of fusion.

        Please feel free to ask questions everyone.
        So then what do gamma rays do to the universe and creation? They have high energy but very little mass? So that means they move very fast then? Are photons a part of an atom?

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by redsoxmaloney View Post

          So then what do gamma rays do to the universe and creation? They have high energy but very little mass? So that means they move very fast then? Are photons a part of an atom?
          Good questions Tom:

          Photons are NOT part of an atom. There is much we do not know about them. We are not sure if they have any mass or not. They act like particles sometimes and other times like waves. They travel at the speed of light. The speed of light is faster in a vacuum than in matter like water or glass.

          But these photons of light have REVEALED much about the creation to mankind. Every element releases photons that have some properties that are different. That means that God has revealed to men exactly what elements ( and how much of each element) are in every star that we receive light from. Also we are able to tell how far that star is from the earth by the red shift of the light. So it is light that reveals all of this to us.

          The natural is a sign of the spiritual. Just as natural light reveals so much about the universe to man, God is light and He reveals His mysteries to those who seek Him with all of their heart. Truly His creation declares His glory.

          So God has put the earth in a very RARE position. First of all, the earth is in a very rare place where we can observe most of His creation. Second God has created a "time machine" by having the earth receive light from far away galaxies. We are actually looking at light that left that galaxy billions of years ago in some cases. That means we are looking at that galaxy and seeing what it looked like billions of years ago.

          So God has revealed to men who are seeking the truth that His creation is very old. This reveals His glory, because God calls Himself, "The Ancient of days". Now God also says a 1000 years is like day to Him. So 6000 years, or six days would not reveal Him as the Ancient of Days would it. God is saying that there has been many many days according to His account. So there has been many many days since the beginning of time.

          The Holy Scriptures imply this to be true, but His creation is a much older revelation from Him. His creation reveals that it is very very old.

          Gamma Rays:

          These are the highest frequency photons known to man. That means that their wave length is very very short and fast. That also gives them a very high energy state. They move at the speed of light.

          If mankind was exposed to much gamma ray radiation it would kill us. Our atmosphere protects us from these gamma rays. It is the OZONE in the atmosphere that does this. Ozone is O3 instead of O2. It is very unstable and dangerous for us to breath too much of it because it is so unstable ( it would corrode our lungs and Ozone air filters are not good for your health because of this)

          BUT even more important is the fact that God put the earth in a place that is almost empty. This means that there has been no supernovas that took place close to us. A supernova produces gamma rays that would kill all life on the earth if it was close to us. The main protection from these supernovas is DISTANCE. The amount of gamma rays DECREASE as inverse of the cube of the distance from the source. ( the further away the less radiation) So as long as these supernovas are far away we receive very little gamma ray radiation from them. The ozone can handle that small amount, but it could not handle a large amount if one was close to us.

          This ozone is high up in the atmosphere where we do not breath it. God could not put a lot of ozone in the air or it would kill us over time. You have smelled ozone after lightning has hit close by. That smell is ozone. A little bit is good once in a while for it renews the lung cells. But too much would kill us. So you see lightning is necessary to resupply the ozone in our air. So thank God every time we have a lightning storm for He is making ozone to protect you.

          You see Jesus says you shall know the Truth and the Truth will set you free. So instead of fear, we should all thank God for lightning.

          This is why the earth is far from the center of the galaxy. The center has very very high amounts of gamma rays. This is also why the earth in not in one of the arms of the galaxy where the stars are close together. With all those stars we would be too close to a very large massive star that would supernova and kill all life on earth.

          So we can see that these atheists that are looking for other planets that have life, may be looking in vain. Almost all planets are located in a place where there is too much gamma rays and so no life. The earth is a very very rare planet. It may be unique, or one of a kind. ( I tend to think that is is one of a kind for many reasons)

          But they must look because they put their hope in the cosmos ( the creation) instead of The Creator.

          Any man that seeks truth should be able to see that if the universe has a beginning, it has to have a Beginner. God has revealed to mankind that his creation has a beginning just as Genesis 1 says.

          In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

          It was God who was the Beginner.

          The heavens and the earth is all of the matter and energy of the universe

          The first verse of His Book tells us that His creation has a beginning

          Lou Newton
          Last edited by Lou Newton; January 22, 2017, 01:20 PM.

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by Lou Newton View Post

            Good questions Tom:

            Photons are NOT part of an atom. There is much we do not know about them. We are not sure if they have any mass or not. They act like particles sometimes and other times like waves. They travel at the speed of light. The speed of light is faster in a vacuum than in matter like water or glass.

            But these photons of light have REVEALED much about the creation to mankind. Every element releases photons that have some properties that are different. That means that God has revealed to men exactly what elements ( and how much of each element) are in every star that we receive light from. Also we are able to tell how far that star is from the earth by the red shift of the light. So it is light that reveals all of this to us.

            The natural is a sign of the spiritual. Just as natural light reveals so much about the universe to man, God is light and He reveals His mysteries to those who seek Him with all of their heart. Truly His creation declares His glory.

            So God has put the earth in a very RARE position. First of all, the earth is in a very rare place where we can observe most of His creation. Second God has created a "time machine" by having the earth receive light from far away galaxies. We are actually looking at light that left that galaxy billions of years ago in some cases. That means we are looking at that galaxy and seeing what it looked like billions of years ago.

            So God has revealed to men who are seeking the truth that His creation is very old. This reveals His glory, because God calls Himself, "The Ancient of days". Now God also says a 1000 years is like day to Him. So 6000 years, or six days would not reveal Him as the Ancient of Days would it. God is saying that there has been many many days according to His account. So there has been many many days since the beginning of time.

            The Holy Scriptures imply this to be true, but His creation is a much older revelation from Him. His creation reveals that it is very very old.

            Gamma Rays:

            These are the highest frequency photons known to man. That means that their wave length is very very short and fast. That also gives them a very high energy state. They move at the speed of light.

            If mankind was exposed to much gamma ray radiation it would kill us. Our atmosphere protects us from these gamma rays. It is the OZONE in the atmosphere that does this. Ozone is O3 instead of O2. It is very unstable and dangerous for us to breath too much of it because it is so unstable ( it would corrode our lungs and Ozone air filters are not good for your health because of this)

            BUT even more important is the fact that God put the earth in a place that is almost empty. This means that there has been no supernovas that took place close to us. A supernova produces gamma rays that would kill all life on the earth if it was close to us. The main protection from these supernovas is DISTANCE. The amount of gamma rays DECREASE as inverse of the cube of the distance from the source. ( the further away the less radiation) So as long as these supernovas are far away we receive very little gamma ray radiation from them. The ozone can handle that small amount, but it could not handle a large amount if one was close to us.

            This ozone is high up in the atmosphere where we do not breath it. God could not put a lot of ozone in the air or it would kill us over time. You have smelled ozone after lightning has hit close by. That smell is ozone. A little bit is good once in a while for it renews the lung cells. But too much would kill us. So you see lightning is necessary to resupply the ozone in our air. So thank God every time we have a lightning storm for He is making ozone to protect you.

            You see Jesus says you shall know the Truth and the Truth will set you free. So instead of fear, we should all thank God for lightning.

            This is why the earth is far from the center of the galaxy. The center has very very high amounts of gamma rays. This is also why the earth in not in one of the arms of the galaxy where the stars are close together. With all those stars we would be too close to a very large massive star that would supernova and kill all life on earth.

            So we can see that these atheists that are looking for other planets that have life, may be looking in vain. Almost all planets are located in a place where there is too much gamma rays and so no life. The earth is a very very rare planet. It may be unique, or one of a kind. ( I tend to think that is is one of a kind for many reasons)

            But they must look because they put their hope in the cosmos ( the creation) instead of The Creator.

            Any man that seeks truth should be able to see that if the universe has a beginning, it has to have a Beginner. God has revealed to mankind that his creation has a beginning just as Genesis 1 says.

            In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

            It was God who was the Beginner.

            The heavens and the earth is all of the matter and energy of the universe

            The first verse of His Book tells us that His creation has a beginning

            Lou Newton
            So I think you are saying you can't trust the creation (science and discoveries) without asking God what it means. So it would be true that you can't trust the scriptures without asking God what he meant. Truth is exceptionally hard to see then, for almost everyone trusts one or the other without asking God what he means.
            So photons are light particles then. Does light have atoms or just photons? How much of the visible spectrum is light then? Is there a lot that we can't see? And where does dark matter fit in?

            Comment


            • #7
              Very interesting Dad. Thanks for sharing.

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by Isaac View Post
                Very interesting Dad. Thanks for sharing.
                I am thankful it was interesting to you Isaac. Thanks for the reply, it is so good to hear from you.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by redsoxmaloney View Post

                  So I think you are saying you can't trust the creation (science and discoveries) without asking God what it means. So it would be true that you can't trust the scriptures without asking God what he meant. Truth is exceptionally hard to see then, for almost everyone trusts one or the other without asking God what he means.
                  So photons are light particles then. Does light have atoms or just photons? How much of the visible spectrum is light then? Is there a lot that we can't see? And where does dark matter fit in?
                  Tom, I wrote a couple of screens full to answer your questions and my computer just shut down without warning and I lost it. I will try again later.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by redsoxmaloney View Post

                    So I think you are saying you can't trust the creation (science and discoveries) without asking God what it means. So it would be true that you can't trust the scriptures without asking God what he meant. Truth is exceptionally hard to see then, for almost everyone trusts one or the other without asking God what he means.
                    So photons are light particles then. Does light have atoms or just photons? How much of the visible spectrum is light then? Is there a lot that we can't see? And where does dark matter fit in?
                    Well I will try again to answer your questions Tom:

                    We can trust both the Creation and the Holy Scriptures Tom. What we can not trust is our understanding of either. We have to ask The Lord to reveal the Truth about both to us.

                    Light does not have atoms. Atoms are very small but very large and massive compared to a photon. Light is made up of photons.

                    Very little of the electro- magnetic spectrum in visible to the human eye. Most of it is invisible to our eyes. BUT we can detect other parts of it in other ways. For instance we can feel infra red radiation as heat.
                    Ionizing
                    radiation
                    γ Gamma rays 300 EHz 1 pm 1.24 MeV
                    30 EHz 10 pm 124 keV
                    HX Hard X-rays
                    3 EHz 100 pm 12.4 keV
                    SX Soft X-rays
                    300 PHz 1 nm 1.24 keV
                    30 PHz 10 nm 124 eV
                    EUV Extreme
                    ultraviolet
                    3 PHz 100 nm 12.4 eV
                    NUV Near
                    ultraviolet
                    Visible 300 THz 1 μm 1.24 eV
                    NIR Near infrared
                    30 THz 10 μm 124 meV
                    MIR Mid infrared
                    3 THz 100 μm 12.4 meV
                    FIR Far infrared
                    300 GHz 1 mm 1.24 meV
                    Micro-
                    waves


                    and

                    radio
                    waves
                    EHF Extremely high
                    frequency
                    30 GHz 1 cm 124 μeV
                    SHF Super high
                    frequency
                    3 GHz 1 dm 12.4 μeV
                    UHF Ultra high
                    frequency
                    300 MHz 1 m 1.24 μeV
                    VHF Very high
                    frequency
                    30 MHz 10 m 124 neV
                    HF High
                    frequency
                    3 MHz 100 m 12.4 neV
                    MF Medium
                    frequency
                    300 kHz 1 km 1.24 neV
                    LF Low
                    frequency
                    30 kHz 10 km 124 peV
                    VLF Very low
                    frequency
                    3 kHz 100 km 12.4 peV
                    ULF Ultra low frequency
                    300 Hz 1 Mm 1.24 peV
                    SLF Super low
                    frequency
                    30 Hz 10 Mm 124 feV
                    ELF Extremely low
                    frequency
                    3 Hz 100 Mm 12.4 feV
                    Sources: File:Light spectrum.svg [1][2][3]
                    Notice in the following chart that some radio wave are longer than 1000 meters and others house size. Micro waves are the size of a dot on the paper. Infrared waves are the size of a cell but visible light is much smaller, the size of bacteria. Gamma rays are much smaller than a molecule of water. Considering how small and how much energy gamma rays have you can see why they penetrate things like our body.

                    Remember that our body is made up of atoms that are made up of electrons and protons but they are mostly space between the electrons and nucleus. So high energy particles like gamma rays can penetrate the space of the atoms. You can think of this like a comet going through our solar system between the planets only on a much smaller scale.

                    Of course just as a comet could be attracted by the gravity of a large planet and caused to hit it; so the gamma rays can hit a particle of one our atoms and cause damage.

                    People that spend a lot of time at very high altitude without proper protection will receive gamma ray damage to their body over time. They do not have as much of the atmosphere to protect them.
                    Last edited by Lou Newton; January 23, 2017, 10:10 PM.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by Lou Newton View Post

                      Well I will try again to answer your questions Tom:

                      We can trust both the Creation and the Holy Scriptures Tom. What we can not trust is our understanding of either. We have to ask The Lord to reveal the Truth about both to us.

                      Light does not have atoms. Atoms are very small but very large and massive compared to a photon. Light is made up of photons.

                      Very little of the electro- magnetic spectrum in visible to the human eye. Most of it is invisible to our eyes. BUT we can detect other parts of it in other ways. For instance we can feel infra red radiation as heat.
                      Ionizing
                      radiation
                      γ Gamma rays 300 EHz 1 pm 1.24 MeV
                      30 EHz 10 pm 124 keV
                      HX Hard X-rays
                      3 EHz 100 pm 12.4 keV
                      SX Soft X-rays
                      300 PHz 1 nm 1.24 keV
                      30 PHz 10 nm 124 eV
                      EUV Extreme
                      ultraviolet
                      3 PHz 100 nm 12.4 eV
                      NUV Near
                      ultraviolet
                      Visible 300 THz 1 μm 1.24 eV
                      NIR Near infrared
                      30 THz 10 μm 124 meV
                      MIR Mid infrared
                      3 THz 100 μm 12.4 meV
                      FIR Far infrared
                      300 GHz 1 mm 1.24 meV
                      Micro-
                      waves


                      and

                      radio
                      waves
                      EHF Extremely high
                      frequency
                      30 GHz 1 cm 124 μeV
                      SHF Super high
                      frequency
                      3 GHz 1 dm 12.4 μeV
                      UHF Ultra high
                      frequency
                      300 MHz 1 m 1.24 μeV
                      VHF Very high
                      frequency
                      30 MHz 10 m 124 neV
                      HF High
                      frequency
                      3 MHz 100 m 12.4 neV
                      MF Medium
                      frequency
                      300 kHz 1 km 1.24 neV
                      LF Low
                      frequency
                      30 kHz 10 km 124 peV
                      VLF Very low
                      frequency
                      3 kHz 100 km 12.4 peV
                      ULF Ultra low frequency
                      300 Hz 1 Mm 1.24 peV
                      SLF Super low
                      frequency
                      30 Hz 10 Mm 124 feV
                      ELF Extremely low
                      frequency
                      3 Hz 100 Mm 12.4 feV
                      Sources: File:Light spectrum.svg [1][2][3]
                      Notice in the following chart that some radio wave are longer than 1000 meters and others house size. Micro waves are the size of a dot on the paper. Infrared waves are the size of a cell but visible light is much smaller, the size of bacteria. Gamma rays are much smaller than a molecule of water. Considering how small and how much energy gamma rays have you can see why they penetrate things like our body.

                      Remember that our body is made up of atoms that are made up of electrons and protons but they are mostly space between the electrons and nucleus. So high energy particles like gamma rays can penetrate the space of the atoms. You can think of this like a comet going through our solar system between the planets only on a much smaller scale.

                      Of course just as a comet could be attracted by the gravity of a large planet and caused to hit it; so the gamma rays can hit a particle of one our atoms and cause damage.

                      People that spend a lot of time at very high altitude without proper protection will receive gamma ray damage to their body over time. They do not have as much of the atmosphere to protect them.
                      What about a quick refresher on the 4 fundamental forces. Is there a 5th? Strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravity.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by redsoxmaloney View Post

                        What about a quick refresher on the 4 fundamental forces. Is there a 5th? Strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravity.
                        Mankind only knows of four. I feel pretty sure that their are no more, because The Lord works in FOUR different ways. There are four gospels which are each an example of one of the four.

                        Matthew - King of kings - Lion
                        Mark - Servant of man - Ox
                        Luke - Son of man - Man
                        John - The Almighty - Eagle

                        One could argue that the four forces each reveal one of these natures of God:

                        Matthew - King of kings - Lion ------ - Gravity the weakest of the four forces is the one that rules the universe. It is the force that causes the stars to make light by fusion and also the one that causes supernovas and black holes. It is the one that causes everything to be drawn together. Jesus is The Name above all names, or the highest name of God because He made Himself nothing, or allowed Himself to become weak. This is why he is King of all kings.

                        Mark - Servant of man - Ox -------- electromagnetism is the servant of mankind. Look how we use electricity. It attracts unlike particles and repels particles that have the same charge - just as The Lord's weakness repels those who despise weakness because they seek power ( Satan seeks power). So those that have power are repelled by His weakness, but His Godhood is the source of all power. So the powerful are repelled by the Almighty who is the most powerful. But we who have no power over sin are drawn to Him because He was willing to be weak to save us from our sin. But we are weak and He is strong.

                        Luke - Son of man - Man --------- the weak force - Jesus because a man and allowed Himself to become weak to die for us.

                        John - The Almighty - Eagle ------- The strong force or the Mighty Force

                        What do you guys think ?
                        Last edited by Lou Newton; January 26, 2017, 05:16 PM.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          The strong force holds the nucleus together, but what does the weak forcell do? Farm? Just kidding Roy David.....

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by redsoxmaloney View Post
                            The strong force holds the nucleus together, but what does the weak forcell do? Farm? Just kidding Roy David.....
                            The strong nuclear force holds the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of the atom. The protons all have a positive charge and so repel one another. So the strong force has to be much stronger that the electric charge force ( electromagnetic force). The strong force overcomes the force that tries to repel the protons from each other, and holds them together with a very strong force.

                            The weak force is one of the four fundamental forces that govern all matter in the universe (the other three are gravity, electromagnetism and the strong force). While the other forces hold things together, the weak force plays a greater role in things falling apart, or decaying.

                            The weak force, or weak interaction, is stronger than gravity, but it is only effective at very short distances. It acts on the subatomic level and plays a crucial role in powering stars and creating elements. It is also responsible for much of the natural radiation present in the universe


                            In fact all known forces (or interactions) in the universe can be grouped into four basic types. Below lists these forces in the order of decreasing strength.

                            1. The Strong Force
                            This force is responsible for binding of nuclei. It is the dominant one in reactions and decays of most of the fundamental particles. This force is so strong that it binds and stabilize the protons of similar charges within a nucleus. However, it is very short range. No such force will be felt beyond the order of 1 fm (femtometer or 10-15 m).

                            2. The Electromagnetic Force
                            This is the force which exists between all particles which have an electric charge. For example, electrons (negative charge) bind with nucleus of an atom, due to the presence of protons (positive charge). The force is long range, in principle extending over infinite distance. However, the strength can quickly diminishes due to shielding effect. Many everyday experiences such as friction and air resistance are due to this force. This is also the resistant force that we feel, for example, when pressing our palm against a wall. This is originated from the fact that no two atoms can occupy the same space. However, its strength is about 100 times weaker within the range of 1 fm, where the strong force dominates. But because there is no shielding within the nucleus, the force can be cumulative and can compete with the strong force. This competition determines the stability structure of nuclei.

                            3. The Weak Force This force is responsible for nuclear beta decay and other similar decay processes involving fundamental particles. The range of this force is smaller than 1 fm and is 10-7 weaker than the strong force. Nevertheless, it is important in understanding the behavior of fundamental particles.

                            4. The Gravitational Force
                            This is the force that holds us onto the Earth. It could be important in our daily life, but on the scale of atomic world it is of negligible or no importance at all. Gravitational force is cumulative and extended to infinity. It exists whenever there is matter. Your body is experiencing a gravitaional pull with, say, your computer (or anything close to you or as far away as stars and galaxies) but the effect is so small you will never sense it. However, you can sense the gravitaional pull with the Earth (that is, your weight) due to the cumulative effect of billions of billions of the atoms made up your body with those atoms of the Earth. This means that the larger the body (contain more matter), the stronger the force. But on the scale of individual particles, the force is extremely small, only in the order of 10-38 times that of the strong force.

                            You will notice that of all the 4 basic forces two of them can be experienced in our daily life. They are also called the familiar forces which are the electromagnetic and gravitaional forces. Similarly, the strong force and the weak force are called the unfamiliar forces.

                            While gravity is the weakest of the four forces by far; it is the force that ends up dominating the universe by gathering all matter together. It is the force that causes black holes.

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